Von Ralf Keuper

Spä­tes­tens seit der Ver­öf­fent­li­chung des Bei­trags Why Soft­ware Is Eating the World von Marc And­rees­sen wird die Bedeu­tung der Soft­ware für nut­zer­freund­li­che Pro­duk­te und Ser­vices bei nahe­zu jeder sich bie­ten­den Gele­gen­heit her­vor­ge­ho­ben. Im Ver­gleich dazu ist die schnö­de Hard­ware bes­ten­falls Bei­werk, des­sen man sich so schnell wie mög­lich ent­le­di­gen will. Ohne Hard­ware wird es jedoch auch künf­tig nicht gehen, so Rob Stubbs in Why the World is Moving to Hard­ware-Based Secu­ri­ty.

Die Aus­gangs­la­ge:

As we move towards a cash­less socie­ty, our finan­cial tran­sac­tions incre­a­singly depend on soft­ware. More and more of our per­so­nal infor­ma­ti­on is stored in count­less data­ba­ses. Our on-line brow­sing and shop­ping are tra­cked and ana­ly­zed. Ever­ything from intel­lec­tu­al pro­per­ty to sta­te secrets are com­mu­ni­ca­ted and stored under soft­ware con­trol. Machi­ne lear­ning, AI, big data, ana­ly­tics – it all reli­es on software.

Das Pro­blem:

Howe­ver, soft­ware is, by its natu­re, vul­nerable. Its power – the abi­li­ty to con­ti­nu­al­ly adapt, tune and impro­ve it – is also its down­fall. It can be cor­rup­ted and chan­ged. Mali­cious soft­ware can be inser­ted. It is very dif­fi­cult and expen­si­ve to wri­te secu­re soft­ware, and with incre­a­sing size and com­ple­xi­ty it beco­mes essen­ti­al­ly impos­si­ble. Soft­ware deve­lo­pers are encou­ra­ged to deve­lop code quick­ly due to finan­cial and com­pe­ti­ti­ve pres­su­res, with func­tio­n­a­li­ty and con­ve­ni­en­ce pri­zed over security.

Trotz ihrer unbe­streit­ba­ren Vor­tei­le, kann die Kryp­to­gra­fie nur bedingt hel­fen, das Sicher­heits­pro­blem zu lösen. 

Perhaps the most valu­able tool we have to com­bat such thre­ats is cryp­to­gra­phy – strong algo­rith­ms that mathe­ma­ti­ci­ans assu­re us are secu­re against any known attacks. But the­se are typi­cal­ly imple­men­ted in soft­ware, so errors can be (and fre­quent­ly are) made, and if the inte­gri­ty of the sys­tem is breached, then all bets are off. Moreo­ver, cryp­to­gra­phy depends on keys. If a key is com­pro­mi­sed, then so is the data it is pro­tec­ting. All we have done is sub­sti­tu­te the key for the data – we still have to pro­tect some­thing. The only advan­ta­ge we have is that the key is smal­ler – can we find a way to keep keys safe?

Die bis­lang sichers­ten Ver­fah­ren und Lösun­gen sind laut Stubbs u.a. Apple Secu­re Encla­ve and ARM Trust­Zo­ne. Das größ­te Pro­blem sind Data-in-use in der Cloud, so Stubbs. 

While data is in use, it sits unen­cryp­ted in sys­tem memo­ry, com­ple­te­ly unpro­tec­ted against hacking and mal­wa­re or an atta­cker with phy­si­cal access to the ser­ver. Even ser­vers in pri­va­te data cen­ters are vul­nerable, too.

Nicht ganz unei­gen­nüt­zig, aber in durch­aus legi­ti­mer Absicht, emp­fiehlt der Autor den Ein­satz von Intel Soft­ware Guard Exten­si­on (SGX).

SGX allows app­li­ca­ti­ons to exe­cu­te wit­hin secu­re encla­ves enfor­ced at the hard­ware level by the CPU its­elf. All data is encryp­ted in memo­ry and only decryp­ted while being used insi­de the CPU. This means that, even if the ope­ra­ting sys­tem, hyper­vi­sor or root user are com­pro­mi­sed, the data is still com­ple­te­ly secu­re. For the first time, data can be ful­ly pro­tec­ted across its full lifecy­cle – at rest, in moti­on and in use.

Durch den Ein­satz von SGX kann dar­über hin­aus sicher sein, dass die jewei­li­ge CPU tat­säch­lich ein­ge­setzt wird und die Appli­ka­tio­nen kor­rekt sind und nicht mani­pu­liert wur­den. Eben­so ist sicher, dass der Code kor­rekt aus­ge­führt wird und die Daten geschützt sind. 

Die Emp­feh­lung für die Bankenbranche: 

Soft­ware is sim­ply not up to the job of pro­tec­ting high­ly sen­si­ti­ve or valu­able data. Cryp­to­gra­phy hel­ps, but it needs high-qua­li­ty keys that are well pro­tec­ted. Thus, hard­ware-based secu­ri­ty is com­mon­ly employ­ed in ban­king and in par­ti­cu­lar­ly vul­nerable app­li­ca­ti­ons such as credit cards and mobi­le devices. But the big­gest pro­blem today is with cloud-based soft­ware app­li­ca­ti­ons pro­ces­sing vast amounts of sen­si­ti­ve data that is com­ple­te­ly unpro­tec­ted when in use. Hard­ware-based secu­ri­ty in the form of Intel® SGX tech­no­lo­gy can now pro­vi­de a solu­ti­on to that pro­blem, pro­mi­sing to redu­ce data breaches dra­ma­ti­cal­ly and enab­ling the cloud to final­ly live up to its true potential.

Unter­stützt wird die­se Sicht von wei­te­ren Bei­trä­gen und Publi­ka­tio­nen wie Why Hard­ware-Based Design Secu­ri­ty is Essen­ti­al for Every App­li­ca­ti­on. Sofern die Ban­ken auch digi­ta­le Ver­mö­gens­wer­te ver­wal­ten wol­len, wer­den sie sich inten­siv mit der hard­ware-basier­ten Sicher­heit beschäf­ti­gen müs­sen (Vgl. dazu: Zurück zu den Wur­zeln: Ban­ken als Sicher­heits­dienst­leis­ter für digi­ta­le Ver­mö­gens­wer­te). Bei­spiel­haft dafür ist myID­safe: Self-Sov­er­eign-Iden­ti­ty – Alli­anz aus Öster­reich und die Card Wal­let.

WP Twitter Auto Publish Powered By : XYZScripts.com